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factors affecting secondary productivity

The degree to which defects are found and the required effort therein. Hence, we need a good overview of factors influencing productivity in software development so that developers and managers know what to focus and work on. We decided to not exclude these studies, however, as the identified factors still might be interesting. Also, the workplace itself has an effect on productivity. The technical factors range from detailed product factors, such as execution time constraints, to general environment factors such as the use of software tools. which school factors are associated with better quality and more equitable student performance. Yet another view on this is team cohesion. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHER MOTIVATION IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN THIKA WEST DISTRICT, KIAMBU COUNTY BY TERESA KEMUNTO NYAKUNDI A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION OF KENYATTA UNIVERSITY OCTOBER, 2012 . Chapter  9 discusses this in more detail, and Chapter  23 shows an idea to improve the e-factor. In fairness, we include equal payment opportunities for all employees and diversity in terms of gender or background in the organization. However these factors very significant role in improving productivity of an organization. Knowledge of the factors that determine the chemical variability and yield for each species are thus very important. Yet, a high fraction of effort on communication seems like a good investment. Maybe as a result of Peopleware, the 1990s saw more research on soft factors. Instead, interruptions are much higher; hence, the e-factor becomes worse in open-plan offices. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Introducing new learning courses and educational videos from Apress. There are several factors related to size and complexity. Finally, the planned project schedule needs to fit the actual work to be done. Productive Projects and Teams.” Dorset House Publishing, 1987. protoplasm affects the metabolism of the plant and if metabolism is disturbed, plant growth also gets affected. This category of factors could be seen on the organizational or team level. The consumers directly or indirectly use the food material from the producers and simply convert it into various forms. Available:   https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj-cs.18 . It was noted that a mean score implying no extent at all or small extent was not obtained T. DeMarco, T. Lister. Finally, what the organization has done before plays a role: precedentedness describes how similar the project in question is to existing software, and reuse describes how much of the new software can be achieved by reusing existing software (e.g., internal or open source). We provide a list of factors that empirically have been shown to impact productivity as checklist that a developer or software manager can use to improve productivity. DOI=10.1002/smr.1673. The last factors are about the process model and the distribution of the work. ACM, 2008. The control of the manager over the project. These factors are related to the project: project length and project type. restraining factors acting upon the workers.The main objective of the paper is to perform secondary data analysis on the factors affecting labour productivity in construction. Also established were other factors not stated that affected productivity. To avoid this verification in future, please. “Factors Influencing Software Development Productivity – State of the Art and Industrial Experiences.” Advances in Computers, vol 77, pp. In many instances, less code is actually better as long as it fulfils the customer’s requirements and needs. This contains to some degree safety for taking risks, but it also means that the team members are open to bring in innovations and also change the way they work. Related are also technical dependencies. Factors Affecting Programmer Productivity During Application Development @article{Thadhani1984FactorsAP, title={Factors Affecting Programmer Productivity During Application Development}, author={Arvind J. Thadhani}, journal={IBM Syst. For specific contexts, it will be necessary for practitioners to look into each of these factors in more detail. And the top three secondary factors affecting the productivity in Australian construction industry are insufficient details provided by architect, inadequate examination of the approved drawings, and impractical design. Lemberg, Per, Feldt, Robert. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Wheat Production A Case Study at Walmara Woreda. Newer studies have focused on the dependencies between different software modules or components and how this is reflected in social dependencies in the development team. These include: (a) physiological variations; (b) environmental conditions; (c) geographic variations; (d) genetic factors and evolution; (e) political/social conditions; and also (f) amount of plant material/space and manual labour needs. J. The results show that the school students attend is strongly predictive of their performance. 1. It is a difference if a graphical user interface has to be developed or if the product is a background service. 155–165). Inf Technol Manag (2009) 10: 193.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s10799-009-0050-9 . “Software engineering job productivity—a systematic review.” International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering 23.03 (2013):387–406. Graziotin, D., Wang, X., and Abrahamsson, P. 2015. We also noted that while most of the factors come from academic papers investigating these factors in more detail, the old literature review [1] also included the books by Boehm [6] and Jones [7] as a baseline. In Individual Skills and Experiences, we summarize factors that are related to individuals. Introduction to Productivity in Ecosystem: The rate of biomass production is called productivity. We will summarize the main factors from these decades of research and add a brief review of newer factors that have been investigated in the 2010’s so far. The objective of the study was to identify the major determinants of agricultural productivity in the study area. Cataldo, Marcelo, and James D. Herbsleb. The suitability of the workplace to do creative work. IEEE Computer Society, 2009. Also related to psychological safety is support for innovation. What happens when software developers are (un)happy. The complexity of the function and structure of the software. Tan, Thomas, et al. 1, e18. Journal of Systems and Software, 140, 32-47. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2018.02.041. Results showed that, principals’ communication, conflict management, supervisory and motivation strategies influence the productivity of teachers in Government Secondary Schools. ihrerseits Ein fl uß auf die soziale, kulturelle und organisatorisch e Seite der Wirts ch aftstätigkeit. Finally, there are factors related to the individual project that are not technical in the sense that they come from the technology or programming language. However, the first two describe more specific real-time and embedded systems, while the latter can also cover other constraints. The higher number of studies brought us eight factors in team culture influencing productivity. Researchers have studied the three factors credibility, fairness, and respect especially on the organizational level. For the analysis, we also reused the search string from [1] to stay consistent: software AND (productivity OR “development efficiency” OR “development effectiveness” OR “development performance”). Part of Springer Nature. The concurrent development of hardware also means that it is difficult to rely on the hardware and might require adaptation efforts in the software. It is the rate of energy storage at the consumer level. This could be integrated into a single factor. How well the documentation fits the needs, Application domain such as embedded software, management information system, or web application, For example, continuous integration, automated testing, or configuration management. Also similar but aiming in a different direction is the sense of eliteness of the team. Product complexity tries to capture how difficult it is to implement the system with more or less code. A general factor is the process maturity, meaning how well-defined the development process is. We will discuss technical factors related to the product, the process and the development environment and soft factors related to the corporate culture, the team culture, individual skills and experiences, the work environment and the individual project. Box 1005, East London 5200, South Africa , S.A. Olatundun Department of Teacher Education, University of Ibadan , Ibadan, Nigeria & Emmanuel O. Adu Faculty of education, University of Fort Hare , P.O. Higher requirements on reliability and reusability can increase the effort needed. To improve productivity, evaluate and improve systems and build employee skills. Although we have not found studies focusing specifically on software engineering teams, there are several studies on office layout that should apply in our context. For each role, these skill sets will differ, but there is thus far no fixed set of skills necessary for the roles that came out of the studies. Factors Hindering Teachers’ Productivity in Public Secondary Schools Kemi O. Adu Faculty of education, University of Fort Hare , P.O. All the lectures of all the classes are uploading on this channel. Additional constraints potentially slow down development. How strong are the constraints on the system? This results in costly context switches that could be avoided if you could focus on a single project. There has been considerably more research on the team level than on the corporate level. Experience does play a role but more in the sense of the experience with application domains and platforms. The appropriateness of the schedule for the development task. But productivity depends on many different factors. Why we Ethiopians are celebrated for unforgettable images of chronically malnourished children with … Support for work at home, virtual teams, video conferencing with clients. We have the three factors of application domain experience, manager application domain experience, and platform experience. Internal factors also known as micro- productivity factors. Finally, the turnover in the team might be influenced by the factors mentioned so far. Therefore, we have factors for the analyst capability, the manager capability, and the programmer capability. Graziotin, D., Wang, X., and Abrahamsson, P. 2015. Duhigg, Charles. Generally speaking, achieving a more efficient rate of quality output means more profit for a company. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. The study involves secondary data collected through literature review. There are several things that can affect productivity, such as engagement, good people management practices, workplace environment, appropriate tools, use of technology as an advantage, etc. In discussions, we often hear that communication should be reduced to decrease unnecessary work. Moreover, other non-cognitive factors, such as gender, age, BMI, attendance percentage, social factors and general health play a role in academic performance [5, 43]. }, year={1984}, volume={23}, pages={19-35} } Arvind J. Thadhani; Published 1984; Computer Science; IBM … By far more interesting is the capability of the developers. It is the rate at which radiant energy is captured by the producers for the synthesis of energy rich organic compounds through photosynthesis. Several studies show that schedules that are too tight in effect reduce the productivity. Production factor:the production of every department of a … 2. Differentiate between carbon and phosphorus cycle. The degree and efficiency of which information flows in the team. Instead, the people associated with the project influence them. various factors affect the productivity of construction equipment. Critical Factors Hampering Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia: The Case of Northern Ethiopian Farmers . We will discuss technical factors related to the product, the process, and the development environment, as well as soft factors related to the corporate culture, the team culture, individual skills and experiences, the work environment, and the individual project. While the most obvious motivating factor for employee factor is often thought to be based on salary and promotions, this may not always be the case. This study investigated factors hindering teacher productivity in public secondary schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. We start with the factors related to the culture of the complete organization . It is the result of synthesis of fresh … The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. Even more useful, however, would be a list of factors that empirically have been shown to impact productivity in a more general way. Distributed development of software, meaning software teams physically distributed over several locations in potentially several different time zones, is common today. Technical Report ISCAS-SKLCS-08-08, State Key Laboratory of Computer Science, Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2008. You do not have permission under this license to share adapted material derived from this chapter or parts of it. These growth and productivity factors are in turn information technologies. The quality of the product influences motivation and hence productivity. The list of product factors has seen little change over the past ten years. In any case, the extent and complexity of the software including its data is a major factor that reduces productivity. Credibility is probably the most general factor that describes that communication is open overall in the company and the organization is competent in what it is doing. This does not necessarily include a social and friendly atmosphere but a professional approach to working together. In any case, less turnover is better for productivity, and it is one of the few factors that we can easily measure. The next product factors are related to quality. Factors affecting site productivity of a Costa Rican secondary rain forest in relation to Vochysia ferruginea, a ... possibly affecting the presence of Ca and K in the soil. Abstract . Furthermore, the socio-economic composition of schools explains far more of the differences in student performance The soft factors have been investigated on the corporate, team, project, and individual levels. pp 69-84 | Trendowicz, Adam, Münch, Jürgen. We sort the factors in each category again alphabetically. 188.166.99.171. 27, 7, 467–487. Developer personality has been investigated in many empirical studies. Three validated instruments were used. In software companies, we frequently see open-plan offices with the reasoning that interaction between team members is important. Software development is a type of knowledge work that comes with even more specific difficulties, as software developers deal nowadays with incredibly large and complex systems. ABSTRACT . The completeness of design before the start of coding impacts how much changes need to be done later. 3. The following factors are the key factors affecting productivity in the workplace. Available: https://arxiv.org/abs/1408.1293 . So can their skill set, work habits, and the tools they’ve been provided with. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process. There are many studies looking into the relationship of team size and productivity. Early prototyping can increase productivity because requirements can be clarified and risks can be resolved. Finally, we also count the match of documentation to environmental factors. ACM, 2018. The latter includes methods such as continuous integration or automated tests that often come with agile development processes but are not restricted to them. Exploratory analyses are performed to determine which factors most affect productivity. The higher the motivational factors (wages, benefits, promotion, etc) the higher is the production. Ca was found at intermediate-to-low concentrations at both soil depths, while K was considered deficient. Factors Affecting Agricultural Productivity in Doba Woreda, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia Abstract This Research was conducted to examine the determinant of agricultural productivity in Doba woreda. Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants. A recent large study [22] found no evidence that this is actually the case. There are studies investigating aspects such as if there are windows and natural light or the size of the room and space on a desk. “Coordination breakdowns and their impact on development productivity and software failures.” IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 39.3 (2013): 343–360. ACM. Addison-Wesley, 2000. In general, what is surprising in the studies is that communication effort is positive for productivity. Respect, finally, means that the organization sees their employees not only as “human resources” but as people; management gives the employees opportunities and trusts them with responsibilities. How much of the available storage is consumed? In the beginning of the plant tissue culture, studies were heavily focused on the fundamental assessment of nutrition, growth and differentiation. An example of these constraints might be the use of specific operating systems or database systems or a high number of concurrent users. D. Méndez Fernández, S. Wagner, M. Kalinowski, M. Felderer, P. Mafra, A. Vetrò, T. Conte, M.-T. Christiansson, D. Greer, C. Lassenius, T. Männistö, M. Nayabi, M. Oivo, B. Penzenstadler, D. Pfahl, R. Prikladnicki, G. Ruhe, A. Schekelmann, S. Sen, R. Spinola, A. Tuzcu, J. L. de la Vara, R. Wieringa, Naming the pain in requirements engineering: Contemporary problems, causes, and effects in practice, Empirical Software Engineering 22(5):2298–2338, 2017. Software size usually means the size of the code needed for the software system. It is the result of synthesis of fresh organic matter from inorganic materials. “What Google learned from its quest to build the perfect team.” The New York Times Magazine 26 (2016): 2016. The 1980s saw a more systematic collection of data with, for example, a series of books by Jones [7]. The second factor in this category consists of clear goals that are necessary so that all team members work toward the same objective. Then hypothesis … It is the rate of energy storage at the consumer level. The major factors influencing software development productivity can be summarized in a checklist for developers and managers. Cataldo, Marcelo, James D. Herbsleb, and Kathleen M. Carley. Intensive cultivation requires a large supply of cheap labour. This channel is created for online classes. Privacy: Your email address will only be used for sending these notifications. Not logged in Green plants fix solar energy and accumulate it in organic … You can find more details in Chapter  10. To what degree assistance for new ideas is available. A further aspect of recent studies is outsourcing and global distribution of the project. communication and corporate governance were perceived as affecting productivity to a moderate extent. Time fragmentation is related to the e-factor but covers more the aspect of how many different projects and kinds of tasks you have to work on. Levels of Mg, in contrast, were found to be acceptable throughout almost all the plots sampled, … Finally, project-specific factors are in the Project category. A very general factor is the domain of the application to be developed. Differentiate between primary and secondary... Email me at this address if a comment is added after mine: Email me if a comment is added after mine. Standardized data‐collection techniques are used to collect and consolidate data from 11 central Pennsylvania masonry projects. A further set of factors that are related are constraints on execution time, main storage constraints, and constraints overall, what we term development flexibility. We did not use studies that only validated factors already on the list to keep this article concise. In all areas of professional work, there are a lot of factors that influence productivity. “Productivity trends in incremental and iterative software development.” Proceedings of the 2009 3rd International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement. Some of the important factors influencing industrial productivity are : (i) Technological Development (ii) Quality of Human Resources (iii) Availability of Finance (iv) Managerial Talent (v) Government Policy (vi) Natural Factors!

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